Jhargram is a Sub-divisional Municipality situated in the western part of Paschim Medinipur District of West Bengal, India. Jhargram offers the most exotic beauties of undulating topography culminating in hill ranges of Belpahari, Kankrajhor in the North to the serene beauties of meandering Subarnarekha River in the South. Jhargram is the paradise of nature lovers with bountiful forests of Sal, Mahul, wild elephants, deer and birds. The ancient tenples, royal palaces, folk tunes and rhythms of tribal make it all the more attractive destination of tourists who love to discover the unknown and unaffected beauties of nature.

Jhargram is located at 22.450N, 86.980E. It has an average elevation of 81 metres (265 feet). Usually the weather like much of Bengal is extremely humid and tropical. Temperatures can reach as high as 460C in the hot and dry months of May and jine but can plummet to about 40C in the chilly night of December and January.

Surrounded by dense Sal and Mohua trees and carpeted in red earth, Jhargram, is jan ideal destination for spending a few days in tranquility, on a comparatively low cost budget. Situated in West Bengal and quite close to the Jharkhand State, Jhargram shares its culture with both states. Winter in Jhargram is very enjoyable.

As of 2011 India census, Jhargram had a population of 61,682. Males constitute 50.17% of the population and females 49.83%. Jhargram has an approx. Average literacy rate of 81%. View: At a Glance

Location:
Jhargram town is located on Howrah-Mumbai railway rail way line and 155Km away from Kolkata and only 20 km away from the border of Jharkhand State and 36 km away from District Headquarter, Midnapur and 15Km away from N.H.-6.

Area:
Total area of the town is 21.40 Sq. Km. The town expanding in such a way that it is very difficult to identify the Panchyet area and Municipal area at the outskirts in three sides. Now there are 18 wards in the Municipality.

Year Population
1951 7975
1961 13965
1971 19237
1981 26707
1991 42075
2001 53158
2011 61682
Population:
According to draft census report of 2011 it appears that population of the town was reached to 61682, and there is a trend to influx from the nearest villages of the town as well from abroad due to availability of Medical aids, Education & Marketing facilities. There is huge gathering of people every day from all parts of the Sub-Division and neighboring states to get the above facilities and official works which automatically increasing the demand of water supply, sanitation road facility conservancy expansion of markets and other municipal services – the decadal variation of the town population has always shown in considerable high which may be seen from the beside tables.

Climate & Rainfall:
The climate is hot and humidity is high mainly three seasons are visible in the town and its adjacent area. These are summer monsoon and winter. Summer season is persistently long one. It lasts for seven to eight months of a year. And during this season the town faced severe water scarcity when wells and ponds are dried up and people depend upon municipal water supply. Town is situated in the drought prone region. Average annual rainfall is 1000mm., which is much lower than the other part of the district.

Soil:
The major parts of the town is covered by laterite soil, the ages of which is difficulty to ascertain. Facets of alluvial deposit are found in the northern part. The Normal colour of the soil reddish-brown.

Administrative Setup:
Jhargram town is the Sub-Divisional Headquarter of Jhargram Sub-Division comprising of eight blocks and nine Police Stations. Jhargram town achieved its municipal status in 1982 adopting 25 mouzas of Jhargram Panchayet Samity. There are 18 (Eighteen) Wards of the municipality with one councilor each ward.
Forestry:
Some parts of Jhargram town is flourished with predominant big Sal trees of more than hundred years of age. There is natural forest in south-east part of the town with a deer park, which attracts the visitors, some people of Municipality area are engaged in forest protection groups and forest based small industries. There is a prospect for more involvement in these industries. This part is important as far as Jhargram Municipality is concerned.

Industries:
Jhargram is situated in a economically backward area. At present there is no big Industries. No steps have been taken neither from the public sector nor from the private sector to setup of industry. The people of the area have to depend mainly on small-scale industry, business and cultivation. One segment of people depend upon bell-metal and forest base house hold industries. One medium size Edible –oil industry, a few rice mills two soap factories cashew nut factories are visible. There are a few big industries outside the Municipality but within the radius of 10Km of the town like Rashmi Cement Factory one paper mill and three Sponge Iron Factories. There is sufficient potentiality of establishing of small and medium size industries within and adjacent areas of the town.

Agriculture and Animal Husbandry:
A small portion of land of the Municipality is available for Agriculture. Yet considerable number of the town depends upon the agriculture product of their own land at villages. Some household dairy and poultry in the town have not been able to meet the demand of the town. There is potentiality of establishing of diary, poultry and piggery in large scale by the private and public sector.

Communication:
Jhargram Railway station is situated in the middle of the town on Howrah-Mumbai Railway line. It is one of the busiest stations with unending movement of passengers. The main level-crossing of the town very often remains closed due to movement of passengers and goods train creating heavy traffic jam on the main road of the town. At this moment two diversion roads are required to construct to minimize traffic problem & overcome the situation of ongoing work of RoB.

Jhargram town is connected with District Headquarter State Capital other district of the state and neighboring states by road. N.H. 6 is passing 15 k.m. away from the town. At present there are 61k.m. Pacca (Bituminous) road. 80 k.m. Moorum road and 55k.m. Katcha road which are very insufficient in comparison to increase of traffic load and habitations. The municipal authority cloud do very little development in improvement of road due to paucity of fund.

The Municipal authority built one Bus-Terminus on 10th March 2002 is now linked with 60 numbers of bus & traker route and one hundred buses and trakers ply from the said bus terminus daily connecting Intra district & Inter district.
Health Facilities:
Jhargram District Hospital situated in the town is at the heart of the town as well as Sub-Division as a whole. A number of Private Nursing Homes and Clinics are there in the town. Not only the people of this Sub-Division but a large number of people of Orissa and Jharkhand States dependent on this town for medical aid. Jhargram District Hospital has now sufficient number of Bed & Doctors other facilities will have to be improved by and by. Three ambulances of private ownership are also used by the hospital in case of necessity. Patients of serious diseases are not treated here due to non-availability of infrastructure and specialized personnel.

Educational facilities:
There are 21 primary schools, 8 higher secondary schools of which 3 exclusively for girls, 2 junior High Schools, 1 College, One I.T.I. and one Basic Training College, One Jr. High School and four schools of secondary standard running by N.G.O.S. There are one Polytechnic, One Jr. I.T.I. and one B.Ed. College adjacent to the town but outside the Municipal area. In addition to the above municipality has been running ten SSK and One child labour School. Three primary Schools are required to be established in three school-less wards of the municipality. Literacy percentage of the town is now approximate 80% of the population.

Postal & Telegraph:
The Jhargram town has one main Post Office and three other Sub-post offices, one telephone Exchange with several S.T.D. booths. Some courier services are in work in the town. Now many private sectors are in the business of mobile phone facilities in this town.

Banking Facilities:
Five nationalized banks and three Co-operative banks are there in the town. One L.I.C. Office situated in the town for their business. Some private banking and insurance sectors are coming with their business as the town progress.

Tourist Facilities:
Jhargram is a interesting tourist place for its unique location and natural beauty. There are several tourist-attracting places throughout the Sub-Division. Most of the tourists are stationed at Jhargram town during their tour. To provide them food and Lodging several tourist lodges have been established by the private concern and forest Department & other development the municipality has also a attractive tourist lodge of its own. The municipal authority will also take initiative in near future to make the town more attractive & build another lodge. At present many conducting tour are available for the tourist by the private tourist guides. As a result, Jhargram is well known to tour lover. Considering this we have planned for beautification of Municipal area in the interest of Tourist also.

Recreation:
There are two Cinema Halls, two auditorium, one stadium three parks and a number of play ground. Asperity of the playgrounds required to be removed. Seating gallery of the stadium is too insufficient. There are some libraries and cultural institutions in the town. One auditorium in under construction by the Municipality. The existing parks are required to be improved & some new parks are to be provided in some wards. The Municipal authority is thinking of establishing of large size children parks to meet the demand of the citizens.
Road System:
At present there are 61Km metalled and 80Km moorum road and 55Km. Katcha road. The town is mainly dependent on a main road running through the centre of the town from north to south. This road is state high way no.-09. There is dire necessity of widening of improvement of road converting the moorum and katcha road into metal road and widening of existing metal led road. The municipality is taking initiative but could not do considerable progress for want of fund. A proposal for allocation of fund to construct 5 Km. Metalled roads in double lane will be prepared for better service of Jhargram Town.

Drainage System:
The town has no underground drainage system, only the town is dependent on insufficient surface drainage system. The commercial places of the town faces water logging during rainy season. The town dwellers are mainly dependent on Katcha drains that are silted and encroached for construction of houses and accumulation of wastages. The burning need of the town is to arrange proper and ideal drainage facilities. Length of existing Pacca drain is 9 Km.

Water Supply:
Drinking water is supplied through pipe water from deep wells; 8nos. maintained by P.H.E. Dept. and 4 nos. by municipality, and 2 over head reservoirs; one is of 1 Lakh gallons & another if of 50 thousand gallons & 37 hand pump tube wells. 2.71 Lakh gallons of water supplied daily from the 12 Deep Tube Wells against the daily total requirement of 16.28 Lakh gallons. Through 65% area of the town has been covered so far by providing insufficient drinking water from 850 standpoints through 70 Km. pipeline. People of rest portion depend on ring wells for drinking water which is unsafe. No holding is provided with house connection due to scarcity of drinking water. Due to scanty rainfall underground water level is drowing down day by day. To provided with drinking water to the uncovered area of the town and to provide house connection a large scheme of water supply project will have to be implemented considering the River Kangsabati to meet up the Scarcity of the Town Dwellers.

Market Facilities:
Only one vegetable market parallel to the railway line serves the purpose of town dwellers and other people of adjacent villages. Insufficient space of the market has made it very congested. At this moment 2 vegetable markets are required to be installed for the convenience of the consumers and vendors. The town has 1 main market and other small markets are scattered in dense areas of the town. The Municipality has 2 market complexes; 1 is Raghunathpur Supermarket and the other is Nimtala Market in its jurisdiction. And another market complex is under construction in the bus-terminus in collaboration with a private enterprise which is well known PPP (Private Public Partnership) project.
Housing Facilities:
Jhargram is no exception to other district and Sub-divisional Towns as regards the type and pattern of existing houses. 90% houses are brick-built while 10% are mud-built with straw roofing. Some multi-storied house complexes have been built. Govt. housing complexes are there with several quarters for officials. A considerable number of subsidized low-cost housing are required for slum-dwellers who are sunk in dismal hovels.

Sewerage & Conservancy:
Jhargram town has no underground sewerage system. The town is free from service privy. 3 dumping ground is located in the 3 corners of the town. For clearance of the garbage from the several vats the municipality uses its own tractor. The dustbin not made in proper scientific & hygienic manner moreover most of the areas are devoid of dustbin/vats. Most of the habitants do not use the dustbin but cast the household waste in the road side causing hindrance to the proper drainage network. No fund is available for door-to-door wastage collection but the municipal authority has intention to do that in near future.

Electricity Facilities:
The electric energy is controlled and maintained by WESEB in the town. The Municipality maintains the street light arrangement. One 33KV station supplies electricity in the town and major parts of the sub division. The town suffers from low voltage throughout the years and frequent power cut. To wipe out the problem and to cover the electric-less villages of vast area of Jhargram Sub-division one 132 KV station is installed in the town. The Municipality has to spend a huge amount throughout the year for electric bill for streetlight, running of 12DTW and two market complexes. Due to want of fund streetlight could not be provided to all the areas of the town. Only 11,500 domestic, 1800 commercial and 100 industrial connections are there in the town. 3000 families of low-income group are yet devoid of electric connection.

Land Use Pattern:
The pattern of land use reflects the characters of rapidly growing urbanization. The total area of Municipality 21.40 Sq.Kms is used in following purpose.

Head Land
Dwelling houses, market, offices, educational Institution, play grounds, roads, parks, etc. 48%
Forest 16%
Agril. Land & ponds etc. 25%
Road 11%

20% of the total land of the Municipality area was vested to the Govt. Most of which has been unauthorisely Occupied for dwelling purpose and rest areas are still available for any development activities.